COFFEE TIMELINE brought to you by Donut Gallery!
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|Prior to 1000 AD: Members of the Galla tribe inEthiopia notice that they get an energy boost when they eat a certain berry,ground up and mixed with animal fat.|
1000 AD: Arab traders bring coffee back to theirhomeland and cultivate the plant for the first time on plantations. Theyalso began to boil the beans, creating a drink they call "qahwa"(literally, that which prevents sleep).
1453: Coffee is introduced to Constantinople byOttoman Turks. The world's first coffee shop, Kiva Han, open there in 1475.Turkish law makes it legal for a woman to divorce her husband if he failto provide her with her daily quota of coffee.
1511: Khair Beg, the corrupt governor of Mecca,tries to ban coffee for feat that its influence might foster oppositionto his rule. The sultan sends word that coffee is sacred and has the governorexecuted.
1529: The Turkish Army surrounds Vienna. FranzGeorg Kolschitzky, a Viennese who had lived in Turkey, slips through theenemy lines to lead relief forces to the city. The fleeing Turks leavebehind sacks of "dry black fodder" that Kolschitzky recognisesas coffee. He claims it as his reward and opens central Europe's firstcoffee house. He also establishes the habit of refining the brew by filteringout the grounds, sweetening it, and adding a dash of milk.
1600: Coffee, introduced to the West by Italiantraders, grabs attention in high places. In Italy, Pope Clement VIII isurged by his advisers to consider that favourite drink of the Ottoman Empirepart of the infidel threat. However, he decides to "baptise"it instead, making it an acceptable Christian beverage.
1607: Captain John Smith helps to found the colonyof Virginia at Jamestown. It's believed that he introduced coffee to NorthAmerica.
1645: First coffeehouse opens in Italy.
1652: First coffeehouse opens in England. Coffeehouses multiply and become such popular forums for learned and not so learned- discussion that they are dubbed "penny universities" (a pennybeing the price of a cup of coffee).
1668: Coffee replaces beer as New York's City'sfavourite breakfast drink.
1668: Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse opens in Englandand is frequented by merchants and maritime insurance agents. Eventuallyit becomes Lloyd's of London, the best-known insurance company in the world.1672:First coffeehouse opens in Paris.
1690: With a coffee plant smuggled out of the Arabport of Mocha, the Dutch become the first to transport and cultivate coffeecommercially, in Ceylon and in their East Indian colony - Java, sourceof the brew's nickname.
1700: By 1700 there were nearly 2000 coffee housesin London. King Charles II banned coffee houses because they were regardedas hotbeds of revolution; the ban lasted 11 days .
1713: The Dutch unwittingly provide Louis XIV ofFrance with a coffee bush whose descendants will produce entire Westerncoffee industry when in 1723 French naval officer Gabriel Mathieu do Clieusteals a seedling and transports it to Martinique. Within 50 years andofficial survey records 19 million coffee trees on Martinique. Eventually,90 percent of the world's coffee spreads from this plant.
1721: First coffee house opens in Berlin.
1727: The Brazilian coffee industry gets its startwhen Lieutenant colonel Francisco de Melo Palheta is sent by governmentto arbitrate a border dispute between the French and the Dutch coloniesin Guiana. Not only does he settle the dispute, but also strikes up a secretliaison with the wife of French Guiana's governor. Although France guardedits New World coffee plantations to prevent cultivation from spreading,the lady said good-bye to Palheta with a bouquet in which she hid cuttingsand fertile seeds of coffee.
1732: Johann Sebastian Bach composes his Kaffee-Kantate.Partly an ode to coffee and partly a stab at the movement in Germany toprevent women from drinking coffee (it was thought to make them sterile),the cantata includes the aria, "Ah! How sweet coffee taste! Lovelierthan a thousand kisses, sweeter far than muscatel wine! I must have mycoffee."
1773: Boston Tea Party, Americans revolt againstKing George's Tea Tax and coffee is soon after proclaimed the nationalbeverage.
1775: Prussia's Frederick the Great tries to blockimports of green coffee, as Prussia's wealth is drained. Public outcrychanges his mind.
1800's: Experiments made with brewing methods,steam pressure espresso first produced .
1886: Former wholesale grocer Joel Cheek nameshis popular coffee blend "Maxwell House," after the hotel inNashville, TN where it's served.
Early 1900's: In Germany, afternoon coffee becomesa standard occasion. The derogatory term "KaffeeKlatsch" is coinedto describe women's gossip at these affairs. Since broadened to mean relaxedconversation in general.
1900: Hills Bros. begins packing roast coffee invacuum tins, spelling the end of the ubiquitous local roasting shops andcoffee mills.
1901: Luigi Bezzera patents first 'restaurant'espresso machine.
1901: The first soluble "instant" coffeeis invented by Japanese-American chemist Satori Kato of Chicago.
1903: German coffee importer Ludwig Roselius turna batch of ruined coffee beans over to researchers, who perfect the processof removing caffeine from the beans without destroying the flavour. Hemarkets it under the brand name "Sanka." Sanka is introducedto the United States in 1923.
1906: George Constant Washington, an English chemistliving in Guatemala, notices a powdery condensation forming on the spoutof his silver coffee carafe. After experimentation, he creates the firstmass-produced instant coffee (his brand is called Red E Coffee).
1920: Prohibition goes into effect in United States.Coffee sales boom.
1938: having been asked by Brazil to help finda solution to their coffee surpluses, Nestle company invents freeze-driedcoffee. Nestle develops Nescafe and introduces it in Switzerland.
1940: The US imports 70 percent of the world coffeecrop.
1942: During W.W.II, American soldiers are issuedinstant Maxwell House coffee in their ration kits. Back home, widespreadhoarding leads to coffee rationing.
1946: In Italy, Achilles Gaggia perfects firstespresso machine to use higher pressure than steam , through spring poweredlever system. Cappuccino is named for the resemblance of its colour tothe robes of the monks of the Capuchin order.
1960: Faema produce first pump driven espresso.
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